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Table 5 Effects of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes on individual ecosystem services from 1982 to 2016/17 in the study watersheds

From: Changes in ecosystem service values strongly influenced by human activities in contrasting agro-ecological environments

Ecosystem services ESV (US$ in thousands)
Guder Aba Gerima Debatie
1982 2006 2012 2017 1982 2005 2016 1982 2006 2011 2017
Provisioning services
 Water supply 1.1 0.5 0.5 1.3 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.1
 Food production 34.2 47.1 46.8 33.7 37.0 50.7 51.4 25.9 31.9 36.2 36.5
 Raw material 7.2 3.2 3.5 8.1 5.5 2.2 1.9 2.6 1.9 1.0 0.9
 Genetic resources 2.7 2.4 2.2 2.1 4.4 1.8 1.5 2.1 1.9 1.0 0.9
 Total 45.2 53.1 53.0 45.2 47.7 55.1 55.2 30.9 35.9 38.3 38.5
Regulating services
 Water regulation 1.2 0.7 0.7 1.2 1.0 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.4
 Water treatment 29.5 17.8 17.7 28.1 25.9 12.4 11.3 22.5 15.8 11.3 10.6
 Erosion control 37.9 18.3 19.5 41.0 30.0 12.7 11.2 17.5 12.5 7.5 7.2
 Climate regulation 31.3 13.8 15.1 35.4 23.9 9.6 8.3 11.2 8.1 4.1 4.1
 Biological control 4.8 6.6 6.5 4.3 5.3 6.9 7.0 4.5 4.9 5.4 5.3
 Gas regulation 2.8 1.6 1.6 2.7 2.4 1.1 1.0 1.9 1.4 1.0 0.9
 Disturbance regulation 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1
 Total 108.1 59.2 61.5 113.4 89.1 43.4 39.5 58.8 43.5 29.8 28.7
Supporting services
 Nutrient cycling 25.9 11.4 12.5 29.2 19.7 7.9 6.9 9.2 6.7 3.4 3.4
 Pollination 5.2 5.6 5.4 4.5 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.1 4.6 4.4 4.3
 Soil formation 1.5 0.7 0.8 1.7 1.2 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.3
 Habitat/refugia 2.4 1.1 1.2 2.7 1.9 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.3
Total 35.0 18.8 19.9 38.2 28.2 14.4 13.1 15.9 12.4 8.5 8.3
Cultural services
 Recreation 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2
 Cultural 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2
 Total 1.1 0.5 0.5 1.1 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.3