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Table 1 Descriptions of the selected landscape metrics

From: Estimating landscape structure effects on pollination for management of agricultural landscapes

Category Metric Equation Range
Area and edge    
  Area-MN \(\frac{\sum_{j=1}^{n}{x}_{ij}}{{n}_{i}}\) Area-MN > 0
  ED \(\frac{\sum {e}_{ik}}{A}\left(10000\right)\) 0 ≤ ED, no limit
Shape PAFRAC \(\frac{\frac{2}{\left[\sum_{j=1}^{n}{lnp}_{ij}-{lna}_{ij}\right]-\left[\left(\sum_{j=1}^{n}{lnp}_{ij}\right)\left(\left(\sum_{j=1}^{n}{lna}_{ij}\right)\right)\right]}}{\left(\sum_{j=1}^{n}{lnp}_{ij}^{2}\right)-{\left(\sum_{j=1}^{n}{lnp}_{ij}^{2}\right)}^{2}}\) 1 PAFRAC 2
Aggregation AI \(\left(\frac{{g}_{ii}}{max\to {g}_{ii}}\right)\left(100\right)\) 0 ≤ AI ≥ 100
  NP \({n}_{i}\) NP ≥ 1
  ENN \({h}_{ij}\) ENN > 0
  1. aij = area (m2) of patch; A = total landscape area (m2); ni = number of class i patches in the landscape; eij = total length (m) of edges of patch ij, including landscape boundary, gii = the number of adjacencies (contiguity) between pixels of patch class i; max gii = maximum possible number of adjacencies among pixels of patches of class i, hij = distance (m) from patch ij to the nearest neighboring patch of the same type (class), based on patch edge-to-edge distance, computed from cell center to cell center (McGarigal et al. 2002)
  2. In this table, several metrics related to area and edge, shape, and aggregation categories have been presented that all of them measure landscape configuration aspects