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Table 1 Direct, indirect, and total effects of acid rain, soil traits, and litter quality on fine root litter decomposition rate based on structural equation models

From: Effects of sulfuric, nitric, and mixed acid rain on the decomposition of fine root litter in Southern China

Factors pH S/N pHs Phosphatase Urease C/Nr Car
Total 0.476 0.090 0.679 0.160 − 0.108 − 0.387 0.053
Direct − 0.281 − 0.176 0.794 0.142 − 0.405 − 0.387 0.053
Indirect 0.757 0.265 − 0.115 0.018 0.297 / /
  1. S/N the ratio of SO42 to NO3; pH acid rain pH. pHs soil pH, Phosphatase soil acid phosphatase activity, Urease soil urease activity; C/Nr C/N ratio of fine-root litter, Car calcium content of fine root litter