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Table 1 Soil physicochemical properties in different freeze–thaw stages

From: Responses of soil microbial communities to freeze–thaw cycles in a Chinese temperate forest

Variables O horizon soil A horizon soil Two-way ANOVA
Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage I Stage II Stage III FTC H FTC × H
pH value 5.13 ± 0.11 5.50 ± 0.17 5.24 ± 0.03 4.99 ± 0.08 4.95 ± 0.15 5.13 ± 0.05 n.s. ** n.s.
SWC (%) 100.8 ± 11.1b 254.0 ± 38.4a 127.4 ± 14.9b 61.3 ± 8.8b 161.1 ± 33.1a 90.3 ± 16.6b *** ** n.s.
SOC (g·kg−1) 126.9 ± 3.8b 210.9 ± 20.7a 202.2 ± 21.9a 54.7 ± 2.6b 133.1 ± 21.6a 68.0 ± 5.5b *** *** *
TN (g·kg−1) 9.4 ± 0.4b 15.3 ± 1.2a 14.4 ± 1.1a 4.3 ± 0.2b 10.5 ± 1.4a 5.9 ± 0.5b *** *** *
TP (g·kg−1) 1.32 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1b 1.4 ± 0.1a 1.1 ± 0.1ab n.s. ** n.s.
SOC/TN 13.5 ± 0.4 13.7 ± 0.5 13.9 ± 0.6 12.6 ± 0.3 12.4 ± 0.6 11.6 ± 0.3 n.s. *** n.s.
SOC/TP 97.4 ± 5.8b 148.4 ± 16.0a 147.6 ± 16.9a 56.0 ± 6.4b 97.0 ± 13.2a 63.2 ± 3.5b *** *** n.s.
TN/TP 7.21 ± 0.43b 10.8 ± 0.8a 10.5 ± 0.9a 4.4 ± 0.5b 7.7 ± 0.7a 5.5 ± 0.3b *** *** n.s.
DOC (mg·kg−1) 350.4 ± 27.9b 576.6 ± 79.2a 363.1 ± 34.3b 264.1 ± 29.8b 419.6 ± 22.5a 266.3 ± 36.7b ** ** n.s.
TDN (mg·kg−1) 180.0 ± 45.3b 299.1 ± 34.9a 157.9 ± 17.9b 76.8 ± 19.0b 210.0 ± 19.8a 71.7 ± 10.7b *** *** n.s.
DON (mg·kg−1) 101.6 ± 36.1b 187.0 ± 25.3a 123.5 ± 15.0b 57.8 ± 17.5b 135.0 ± 15.5a 57.9 ± 8.7b ** ** n.s.
NH4+-N (mg·kg−1) 53.8 ± 10.2b 98.9 ± 11.5a 25.1 ± 2.5c 10.9 ± 1.5b 53.5 ± 4.9a 6.9 ± 1.7b *** *** *
NO3-N (mg·kg−1) 24.5 ± 5.5a 13.2 ± 1.9ab 9.3 ± 2.1b 8.0 ± 0.8b 21.5 ± 4.6a 6.9 ± 0.8b ** n.s **
TDP (mg·kg−1) 9.3 ± 1.2b 18.4 ± 3.5a 11.4 ± 1.4ab 4.3 ± 0.6b 8.5 ± 0.9a 4.2 ± 0.5b *** *** n.s.
AP (mg·kg−1) 15.3 ± 2.1b 23.6 ± 3.9ab 28.6 ± 2.0a 6.7 ± 1.3b 13.3 ± 2.0a 11.9 ± 1.4a ** *** n.s.
DOC/TDN 2.3 ± 0.4 1.9 ± 0.17 2.4 ± 0.2 3.8 ± 0.5a 2.1 ± 0.2b 3.8 ± 0.3a *** *** n.s.
DOC/TDP 40.4 ± 6.4 34.1 ± 6.0 32.9 ± 3.1 63.0 ± 5.7 52.1 ± 7.8 63.9 ± 6.1 n.s. *** n.s.
TDN/TDP 19.7 ± 4.6 18.0 ± 2.9 14.1 ± 1.3 17.7 ± 2.7b 25.5 ± 3.3a 16.9 ± 1.0b n.s. n.s. n.s.
  1. SWC soil water content, SOC soil organic C, TN total N, TP total P, DOC dissolved organic C, TDN total dissolved N, DON dissolved organic N, NH4+-N Ammonium N, NO3-N Nitrate N, TDP total dissolved P, AP Available P, the same below. Data are displayed as means ± standard errors (n = 5). The effects of the freeze–thaw cycle (FTC), soil horizon (H), and their interaction (FTC × H) are shown at the right columns. Bold lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different stages within the same horizon (P < 0.05). Two-way ANOVA results * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 and n.s. not significant