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Table 2 Annual values of gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (RE) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in the 80-year-old, 45-year-old, and 17-year-old forest sites from 2003–2019

From: Heat and drought impact on carbon exchange in an age-sequence of temperate pine forests

Year 80-year-old 45-year-old 17-year-old Ta PPT
GEP RE NEP GEP RE NEP GEP RE NEP
2003 1344 1194 155 1340 695 666 494 515 − 17 8.17 913
2004 1244 1129 123 1098 788 318 695 558 145 8.54 955
2005 1239 1163 87 1129 785 346 429 557 − 126 9.11 863
2006 1372 1181 199 1258 750 511 611 569 34 9.82 1478
2007 1298 1180 123 1111 755 366 706 566 160 9.23 712
2008 1545 1342 212 1456 1189 279 976 784 191 8.58 1021
2009 1443 1212 239 1488 1078 418 1137 1034 105 8.39 995
2010 1567 1415 160 1746 1247 509 1412 1241 173 9.54 896
2011 1430 1128 322 1574 1136 452 1462 1252 216 9.56 1293
2012 1452 1385 77 1685 1203 496 1473 1297 183 11.16 1001
2013 1501 1282 228 1691 1091 615 1571 1394 180 9.09 1266
2014 1601 1345 263 1698 939 771 NA NA NA 8.08 1188
2015 1701 1328 395 1869 1048 831 1950 1823 128 9.48 811
2016 1617 1491 141 1648 1070 589 1753 1841 − 91 10.03 778
2017 1709 1525 208 1641 1039 620 1805 2014 − 218 9.92 986
2018 1641 1670 − 9 1591 1123 549 1569 1877 − 319 9.42 922
2019 1543 1415 138 1695 916 807 2008 1998 6 8.96 911
Mean 1485 1317 180 1513 979 538 1253 1208 64 9.24 999
  1. NA—Carbon fluxes were not reported at the 17-year-old site in 2014 due to missing data caused by an IRGA malfunction that affected flux data quality
  2. Units for all carbon fluxes are g C m−2 yr−1. Annual mean air temperature, Ta (°C) and annual total precipitation, PPT (mm yr−1) are also given