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Table 3 Results of PERMANOVA and pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni P-value adjustments on the three stages based on plant functional groups, ant traits, and ant functional groups, respectively

From: Congruent responses of vascular plant and ant communities to pastoral land-use abandonment in mountain areas throughout different biogeographic regions

  Df SumOfSqs R2 F Pr (> F) Stage*
1 2 3
Plant functional groups 2 4.97 0.3 15 *** a b c
Ant traits 2 0.34 0.2 5.9 *** a b c
Ant functional groups 2 1.29 0.2 6.2 *** a a b
  1. *Data within a row followed by the same letter do not differ at P ≥ 0.05