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Table 2 Presence of papers with sound explanations or justifications of necessary procedures, parameters, and indices

From: Applications of structural equation modeling (SEM) in ecological studies: an updated review

Characteristics All (%) With latent variable (%) Without latent variable (%)
Justification of sample size 0.0 0.0 0.0
Evidence of data screening 0.0 0.0 0.0
Data distribution and preparation 0.0 0.0 0.0
Variable selection 8.9 7.5 9.4
Hypothesized model diagram 96.6 94.7 97.0
Evidence of causal relationship 94.2 90.0 96.2
Explain models modification 13.7 12.5 14.2
Path coefficients 82.2 75.0 84.9
Standard errors 8.9 7.5 6.8