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Table 5 LULC transition matrix of major changes in the landscape from 1984 to 2004 (%)

From: Competition for land resources: driving forces and consequences in crop-livestock production systems of the Ethiopian highlands

  To final state (2004)
Bushland Grazing Cropland Plantation Settlement Total 1984 Loss
From the initial state (1984)
 Bushland 220.4 95.7 7.1 0.6 0.1 323.9 103.5
 Grazing land 56.9 221.3 440.2 156.7 17.6 892.6 671.3
 Cropland 3.0 1.2 907.1 203.5 14.2 1129.0 221.9
 Plantation 0.6 0.5 69.6 8.5 0.5 79.7 71.3
 Settlement 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
       1357.3a  
Total (2004) 280.9 318.7 1424.0 369.3 32.1   
Gain 60.5 97.4 516.9 360.8 32.1   
Net change b − 43.0 − 573.9 295.0 289.5 32.1   
Net persistencec − 0.2 − 2.6 0.3 34.2   
  1. Bolded diagonal elements represent each land-use/cover class that was static (persistent) between 1984 and 2004. The loss column and gain row indicate the size of the landscape that experienced gross loss and gain in each class
  2. aThe sum of diagonals represents the overall persistence (i.e., the landscape that did not change)
  3. bNet change = gain − loss
  4. cNet persistence refers to the net change to persistent land (i.e., net change/diagonals of each class)