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Table 4 Spearman correlation between land use and water quality indicators used in the previous studies

From: Impact of land uses on water quality in Malaysia: a review

Variables Urban Agricultural Forest Others Physical Chemical Biological Hydrological
Urban 1 0.606 0.724 − 0.133 0.558 0.536 − 0.180 0.714
Agricultural 0.606 1 0.756 0.111 0.707 0.667 0.595 0.490
Forest 0.724 0.756 1 0.228 0.770 0.764 0.220 0.508
Others − 0.133 0.111 0.228 1 − 0.101 − 0.263 0.151 − 0.109
Physical 0.558 0.707 0.770 − 0.101 1 0.901 0.438 0.495
Chemical 0.536 0.667 0.764 − 0.263 0.901 1 0.425 0.310
Biological − 0.180 0.595 0.220 0.151 0.438 0.425 1 − 0.183
Hydrological 0.714 0.490 0.508 − 0.109 0.495 0.310 − 0.183 1
  1. Values in italics are different from 0 with a significance level alpha = 0.05