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Table 1 Studies on high stumps by age (years after cutting) and spatial scale. The same set of stumps may recur in several papers but with different age, and several spatial scales can be addressed in the same paper

From: Research on retention forestry in Northern Europe

Years after cuttingTreeStandLandscape
< 2Schroeder et al. 1999; Hilszczański et al. 2005; Lindhe et al. 2005; Gibb et al. 2006; Johansson et al. 2006; Abrahamsson and Lindbladh 2006; Hjältén et al. 2007; Hedgren 2007; Fossestøl and Sverdrup-Thygeson 2009Hilszczański et al. 2005; Johansson et al. 2006; Hjältén et al. 2007; Lindbladh and Abrahamsson 2008 
3–6Jonsell and Weslien 2003; Jonsell et al. 2004, 2005; Lindhe et al. 2004, 2005; Lindhe and Lindelöw 2004; Abrahamsson et al. 2008; Westerfelt et al. 2015Lindbladh et al. 2007; Lindbladh and Abrahamsson 2008; Westerfelt et al. 2018Schroeder et al. 2006; Lindbladh et al. 2007
7–10Lindhe et al. 2004, 2005; Lindhe and Lindelöw 2004; Westerfelt et al. 2015Westerfelt et al. 2018Schroeder et al. 2006; Abrahamsson et al. 2009; Jonsell et al. 2019
> 11Weslien et al. 2011; Jacobsen et al. 2015; Westerfelt et al. 2015Westerfelt et al. 2018Djupström et al. 2012