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Fig. 2 | Ecological Processes

Fig. 2

From: Experimental evidence on biodiversity impacts of variable retention forestry, prescribed burning, and deadwood manipulation in Fennoscandia

Fig. 2

Examples of practical retention and restoration. Top-left: retention tree group and high stumps in a clear-cut, first post-harvest summer (MONTA experiment, Finland, June 1996). Top-right: gap felling combined with high stumps, third post-harvest winter (Future Forest experiment, Sweden, March 2013). Bottom-left: selectively-felled mixed uneven-aged forest, third post-harvest summer (DISTDYN experiment, Finland, June 2012). Bottom-right: combined prescribed burning and intentionally killed, pushed-down trees at and around a paludified patch, seventh post-harvest summer (EVO experiment, Finland, May 2009). Photos © Matti Koivula

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