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Table 6 Potential ecological risk index (RI) of metals in sediments of lakes along a rural to urban gradient in central China

From: Heavy metal gradients from rural to urban lakes in central China

Group \( {\boldsymbol{E}}_{\boldsymbol{r}}^{\boldsymbol{i}} \)a RIb RI ranges and categories
Cu Pb Cd Zn Cr As
A 10.55 2.33 15 0.6 2.47 33.35 64.3 RI < 112.5 low
B 3.74 2.11 9.72 0.55 6.7 41.7 64.52 112.5 ≤ RI < 225 moderate
C 9.37 4.49 18.38 0.95 7.12 35.3 75.61 225 ≤ RI < 450 considerable
D 4.66 2.53 22.77 0.66 7.11 34.85 72.58 RI ≥ 450 high
E 6.27 2.79 13.58 0.77 7.43 26.16 57  
  1. Note: a\( {E}_r^i \) is the potential ecological risk factor for individual heavy metals; bRI represents the sensitivity of the biological community to toxic substance and illustrates the potential ecological risk caused by the overall contamination