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Table 4 The land use/land cover categories and their corresponding ecosystem sub-service values (USD/ha/year) for six representative biomes

From: The impacts of land-use and land-cover change on wetland ecosystem service values in peri-urban and urban area of Bahir Dar City, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Northwestern Ethiopia

Ecosystem services Biome
Croplanda Tropical foresta Urbana Grasslanda Water bodya Wetlandb
Provisioning services
 Water supply   8.00   117.45 2117.00 280.73
 Food production 187.56 32.00    41.00 171.10
 Raw material   51.24     198.54
 Genetic resources   41.00     45.64
 Medicinal resources       33.10
Regulating services
 Water regulation   6.00   3.00 5445.00 981.84
 Waste treatment   136.00   87.00 431.50 1153.95
 Erosion control   245.00   29.00   63.14
 Climate regulation   223.00     208.36
 Biological control 24.00    23.00   
 Gas regulation   13.68   7.00   67.35
 Disturbance regulation   5.00     
Supporting services
 Nutrient cycling   184.40   25.00   103.72
 Pollination 12.00 7.27   1.00   
 Soil formation   10.00     48.50
 Habitat/refugia   17.30     716.51
Cultural services
 Recreation   4.80    69.00 76.89
 Cultural   2   0.80   54.65
Sum 225.56 986.69 0.00 293.25 8103.50 4204.02
  1. aValue coefficients adopted from Kindu et al. (2016), bOwn modified value coefficient using the Economic of Ecosystem and Biodiversity valuation database (Van der Ploeg et al. 2010)