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Table 5 Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) results for macroinvertebrate metrics and traits analyses, with significant findings (α = 0.05) in bold at Indian Mill Creek (IMC), Michigan, USA

From: Relating environmental variables with aquatic community structure in an agricultural/urban coldwater stream

Variable Metrics Traits
F statistic p value F statistic p value
Pools (% area) 5.03 0.048 2.23 0.148
% Fine substrate 11.96 0.004 8.19 0.008
Woody debris and riparian condition 5.04 0.057 3.08 0.076
Suspended sediment 5.43 0.041 5.83 0.016
Water velocity 4.10 0.062 1.02 0.413
Overall model 6.31 0.008 4.07 0.012