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Table 7 A summary of the effects of urbanization on the downstream riverine and estuarine water properties. When most minerals (e.g., Na+, Mg2+, Cl, K+, Ca2+) increased, they were collectively described as EC increased. The arrows before the water properties indicate that the subsequent water properties increased (↑), decreased (↓), or did not change (→). See the list of abbreviations for the water properties

From: The impact of tropical land-use change on downstream riverine and estuarine water properties and biogeochemical cycles: a review

Study sites Effects on downstream water properties Sources
Malacca river, Malacca, Malaysia ↑: EC, pH, SS, turbidity, BOD, COD
↓: DO
Hua (2017)
Penchala River, Selangor, Malaysia ↑: EC, NH4+, BOD, COD
→: pH
↓: DO
Mahazar et al. (2013)
Kuantan, Belat and Galing River, Malaysia ↑: EC, pH, DIN, NH4+, TP, COD
↓: DO, NO3
Kozaki et al. (2016)
Day River, Red River Delta, Vietnam ↑: TN, NH4+, TP, PO43−, Chl a
↓: TN:TP, DO
Hoang et al. (2018)
Day River, Red River Delta, Vietnam ↑: DOC, NH4+, PO43−, pCO2, Chl a Duc et al. (2009)
Saigon-Dongnai Rivers, Vietnam ↑: POC, TN, NH4+, TP, PO43−, Chl a Nguyen et al. (2019b)
Can Gio estuary, Vietnam ↑: pCO2
↓: DO
David et al. (2018)
Can Tho, Mekong Delta, Vietnam ↑: Turbidity, TN, NH4+, PO43−, COD
→: NO3, NO2
↓: DO
Wilbers et al. (2014)
Brantas River Basin, Java, Indonesia ↑: DON, NO3, PO43− Jennerjahn et al. (2004)
Ciliwung watershed, Jakarta, Indonesia ↑: TP, BOD, COD
↓: DO
Permatasari et al. (2017)
Kholpetua-Arpangashia rivers, Sundarbans, Bangladesh ↑: NH4+, PO43−
→: NO3
↓: DO
Rahaman et al. (2013)
Manimala River, Kerala, India ↑: EC, NO3, NO2, TP, PO43−
↓: DO
Padmalal et al. (2012)
Piracicaba River, São Paulo, Brazil ↑: NH4+, pCO2
→: SS, NO3
↓: DO
Ballester et al. (1999)
Martinelli et al. (1999)
Streams, São Paulo, Brazil ↑: PO43−
↓: DO, NO3
Silva et al. (2012)
Streams, São Paulo, Brazil ↑: TN, NH4+, TP, BOD Cunha et al. (2011)
Monjolinho basin, São Carlos, Brazil ↑: EC, turbidity, TN, NO3, TP, PO43−, BOD
↓: DO
Bere and Tundisi (2011)
Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ↑: DO, NH4+, PO43−, Chl a
↓: pCO2
Cotovicz Jr et al. (2015)
Streams, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ↑: TN, NH4+, TP
↓: TN:TP
Tromboni and Dodds (2017)
Una River, São José da Vitória, Brazil ↑: EC, SS, turbidity, PON, DON, NO2, NH4+, PP, DOP, PO43−
→: pH
↓: DO
Santos and De Paula (2019)
Urban streams, Federal District, Brazil ↑: Turbidity, DOC, NO3, NO2, NH4+
↓: DO
Silva et al. (2011)
Cachoeira River estuary, Bahia, Brazil ↑: NH4+, PO43−, Chl a
↓: DO, DIN:DIP
Silva et al. (2013)
Madeira River, Rondônia, Brazil ↑: TDN, TDP Biggs et al. (2004)
Streams, Puerto Rico ↑: Turbidity, TN, TP
↓: DO
Uriarte et al. (2011)
Streams, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico ↑: EC
↓: DO
Wengrove and Ballestero (2012)
Río Pedras Watershed, Puerto Rico ↑: EC, DOC, DON, NH4+, PO43−
↓: DO, NO3
De Jesús-Crespo and Ramírez (2011), Potter et al. (2013), Ramírez et al. (2014)