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Table 3 Frequency (%) of qualitative traits of goat subpopulations of three vegetation zones of Benin

From: Morphological characterization and habitat suitability modeling of the goat population of Benin under climate change scenarios

Variables Modalities Overall (n = 2114) GCZ (n = 893) GSZ (n = 610) SZ (n = 611) χ2 P
Incidence of supernumerary Absence 71.3 64.1 71.8 81.3 53.085 0.0001
teats Presence 28.7 35.9 28.2 18.7   
Head profile Straight 68.0 49.8 80.3 82.2 234.269 0.0001
Concave 32.0 50.2 19.7 17.8   
Ear orientation Erected 93.0 99.9 94.4 81.5 190.964 0.0001
Dropped 7.0 0.1 5.6 18.5   
Coat color Uniform black 1.6 2.4 1.5 0.5 224.243 0.0001
Uniform brown 2.1 0.3 3.6 3.3   
Uniform white 2.6 4.6 1.1 1.0   
Uniform fawn 0.7 0.6 0.5 1.1   
Spotted white 31.5 40.5 25.9 23.7   
Spotted fawn 15.9 13.9 24.1 10.6   
Spotted grey 1.4 1.5 0.3 2.3   
Spotted brown 17.5 12.4 14.8 27.5   
Spotted black 24.5 23.0 26.1 25.0   
Spotted red 2.4 0.9 2.1 4.9   
Pigment pattern Eumelanic 10.0 5.7 9.5 16.7 265.755 0.0001
Localized Variegated 36.5 39.1 38.7 30.6   
Generalized Variegated 28.4 42.2 22.8 13.9   
Others 25.1 13.0 29.0 38.8   
Back profile Straight 25.9 13.0 24.4 46.2 691.9 0.0001
Dipped 25.5 7.4 38.2 39.3   
Slopes up towards the withers 48.6 79.6 37.4 14.6   
Incidence of wattles Presence 18.3 12.7 17.5 27.2 51.504 0.0001
Absence 81.7 87.3 82.5 72.8   
Incidence of beard Presence 5.4 2.7 3.9 11.0 52.106 0.0001
Absence 94.6 97.3 96.1 89.0   
Horn form Straight 17.8 18.8 18.4 15.9 2.299 0.0001
Curved 82.2 81.2 81.6 84.1   
Horn orientation Lateral 26.0 18.3 29.2 34.2 183.401 0.0001
Slanting 17.8 18.8 18.4 15.9   
Onward 12.1 5.2 13.9 20.3   
Backward 44.1 57.8 38.5 29.6   
  1. GCZ Guineo-Congolese zone, GSZ Guineo-Sudanian zone, SZ Sudanian zone
  2. P is the probability observed for the qualitative traits, χ2 expresses independence between variables at 5% level