Anderson DC, Harper KT, Rushforth SR: Recovery of cryptogamic soil crusts from grazing on Utah winter ranges. J Range Manage 1982, 35: 355–359. 10.2307/3898317
Anderson KJ: Temporal patterns in rates of community change during succession. Am Nat 2007, 169: 780–793. 10.1086/516653
Antos JA, McCune B, Bara C: The effect of fire on an ungrazed western Montana grassland. Am Midl Nat 1983, 110: 354–364. 10.2307/2425275
Armstrong R, Bradwell T: Growth of crustose lichens: a review. Geogr Ann A 2010, 92: 3–17. 10.1111/j.1468-0459.2010.00374.x
Bakker JD: Increasing the utility of indicator species analysis. J Appl Ecol 2008, 45: 1829–1835. 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01571.x
Barker DH, Stark LR, Zimpfer JF, McLetchie ND, Smith SD: Evidence of drought-induced stress on biotic crust moss in the Mojave Desert. Plant Cell Environ 2005, 28: 939–947. 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2005.01346.x
Bates JD, Rhodes EC, Davies KW, Sharp R: Postfire succession in big sagebrush steppe with livestock grazing. Rangeland Ecol Manag 2009, 62: 98–110. 10.2111/08-096
Belnap J: Recovery rates of cryptobiotic crusts: inoculant use and assessment methods. Great Basin Nat 1993, 53: 89–95.
Belnap J, Eldridge DJ: Disturbance and recovery of biological soil crusts. In Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Edited by: Belnap J, Lange OL. Berlin: Springer; 2001.
Belnap J, Lange OL: Structure and functioning of biological soil crusts: a synthesis. In Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Edited by: Belnap J, Lange OL. Berlin: Springer; 2001.
Belnap J, Phillips SL, Troxler T: Soil lichen and moss cover and species richness can be highly dynamic: the effects of invasion by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum , precipitation, and temperature on biological soil crusts in SE Utah. Appl Soil Ecol 2006, 32: 63–76. 10.1016/j.apsoil.2004.12.010
Bowker MA, Belnap J, Rosentreter R, Graham B: Wildfire-resistant biological soil crusts and fire-induced loss of soil stability in Palouse prairies, USA. Appl Soil Ecol 2004, 26: 41–52. 10.1016/j.apsoil.2003.10.005
Brooks ML, D’Antonio CM, Richardson DM, Grace JB, Keeley JE, DiTomaso JM, Hobbs RJ, Pellant M, Pyke DA: Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes.. 2004, 54: 677–688.
Chambers JC, Roundy BA, Blank RR, Meyer SE, Whittaker A: What makes great basin sagebrush ecosystems invasible by Bromus tectorum ? Ecol Monogr 2007, 77: 117–145. 10.1890/05-1991
Davies GM, Bakker JD, Dettweiler-Robinson E, Dunwiddie P, Hall SA, Downs J, Evans JR: Trajectories of change in sagebrush-steppe vegetation communities in relation to multiple wildfires. Ecol Appl 2012, 22: 1562–1577.
Dettweiler-Robinson E, Bakker JD, Grace JB: Controls of biological soil crust cover and composition shift with succession in sagebrush shrub-steppe. J Arid Environ 2013. in press in press
Dojani S, Budel B, Deutschewitz K, Weber B: Rapid succession of biological soil crusts after experimental disturbance in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. Appl Soil Ecol 2011, 48: 263–269. 10.1016/j.apsoil.2011.04.013
Dufrêne M, Legendre P: Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecol Monogr 1997, 67: 345–366.
Eldridge DJ, Rosentreter R: Morphological groups: a framework for monitoring microphytic crusts in arid landscapes. J Arid Environ 1999, 41: 11–25. 10.1006/jare.1998.0468
Eldridge DJ, Tozer ME: Environmental factors relating to the distribution of terricolous bryophytes and lichens in semi-arid eastern Australia. Bryologist 1997, 100: 28–39.
Esslinger TL: A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. North Dakota State University, Fargo; 2011. ~esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm [first posted 1 December 1997, most recent version (#17) 16 May 2011 http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm [first posted 1 December 1997, most recent version (#17) 16 May 2011
Flowers S: Mosses: Utah and the West. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press; 1973.
Ford PL, Johnson GV: Effects of dormant- vs. growing-season fire in shortgrass steppe: biological soil crust and perennial grass responses. J Arid Environ 2006, 67: 1–14.
Garcia-Pichel F, Belnap J: Small-scale environments and distribution of biological soil crusts. In Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Edited by: Belnap J, Lange OL. Berlin: Springer; 2001.
Geist HJ, Lambin EF: Dynamic causal patterns of desertification. Bio Sci 2004, 54: 817–829.
Hilty JH, Eldridge DJ, Rosentreter R, Wicklow-Howard MC, Pellant M: Recovery of biological soil crusts following wildfire in Idaho. J Range Manage 2004, 57: 89–96.
Hooper DU, Chapin FS, Ewel JJ, Hector A, Inchausti P, Lavorel S, Lawton JH, Lodge DM, Loreau M, Naeem S, Schmid B, Setälä H, Symstad AJ, Vandermeer J, Wardle DA: Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecol Monogr 2005, 75: 3–35. 10.1890/04-0922
Johansen JR, St. Clair LL, Webb BL, Nebeker GT: Recovery patterns of cryptogamic soil crusts in desert rangelands following fire disturbance. Bryologist 1984, 87: 238–243. 10.2307/3242798
Kaltenecker JH, Wicklow-Howard MC, Rosentreter R: Biological soil crusts in three sagebrush communities recovering from a century of livestock trampling. Proceedings RMRS-P-11. USDA Forest Service. Ogden, UT: Rocky Mountain Research Station; 1999:222–226.
Kleiner EF: Successional trends in an ungrazed, arid grassland over a decade. J Range Manage 1983, 36: 114–118. 10.2307/3897996
Lalley JS, Viles HA: Recovery of lichen-dominated soil crusts in a hyper-arid desert. Biodivers Conserv 2008, 17: 1–20. 10.1007/s10531-007-9153-y
Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA: Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 2000, 10: 689–710. 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0689:BICEGC]2.0.CO;2
Magurran AE, Baillie SR, Buckland ST, Dick JM, Elston DA, Scott EM, Smith RI, Somerfield PJ, Watt AD: Long-term datasets in biodiversity research and monitoring: assessing change in ecological communities through time. Trends Ecol Evol 2010, 25: 574–582. 10.1016/j.tree.2010.06.016
Marble JR, Harper KT: Effect of timing of grazing on soil-surface cryptogamic communities in a Great Basin low-shrub desert: a preliminary report. Great Basin Nat 1989, 49: 104–107.
McCune B, Keon D: Equations for potential annual direct incident radiation and heat load. J Veg Sci 2002, 13: 603–606. 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2002.tb02087.x
McCune B, Rosentreter R: Biotic soil crust lichens of the Columbia Basin. Monogr N Am Lichenol 2007, 1: 1–105.
McCune B, Dey JP, Peck JE, Cassell D, Heiman K, Will-Wolf S, Neitlich PN: Repeatability of community data: species richness versus gradient scores in large-scale lichen studies. Bryologist 1997, 100: 40–46.
Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML, Meiners SJ: Ever since Clements: from succession to vegetation dynamics and understanding to intervention. Appl Veg Sci 2008, 12: 9–21.
Platt WJ, Connell JH: Natural disturbances and directional replacement of species. Ecol Monogr 2003, 73: 507–522. 10.1890/01-0552
Ponzetti JM, McCune B, Pyke DA: Biotic soil crusts in relation to topography, cheatgrass, and fire in the Columbia Basin, Washington. Bryologist 2007, 110: 706–722. 10.1639/0007-2745(2007)110[706:BSCIRT]2.0.CO;2
R Core Team: R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2012.
Rosentreter R, Eldridge DJ, Kaltenecker JH: Monitoring and management of biological soil crusts. In Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Edited by: Belnap J, Lange OL. Berlin: Springer; 2001.
Rychert RC: Assessment of cryptobiotic crust recovery. West N Am Naturalist 2002, 62: 223–227.
Tylianakis JM, Didham RK, Bascompte J, Wardle DA: Global change and species interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol Letters 2008, 11: 1351–1363. 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01250.x
Soil Survey Staff, Natural Resources Conservation Service: United States Department of Agriculture, Web Soil Survey. 2011. Accessed 5 October 2012 http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/ . Accessed 5 October 2012
NRCS: The PLANTS database. National Plant Data Team: Greensboro, NC; 2012. . Accessed 13 October 2012 http://plants.usda.gov . Accessed 13 October 2012
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): United States Geological Survey. Reston, VA; 2011. Accessed 5 October 2012 http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov. Accessed 5 October 2012
Washington Natural Heritage Program: List of rare lichens. Olympia, WA: Washington Department of Natural Resources; 2010. Accessed 14 December 2011 http://www1.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/lists/lichens.html. Accessed 14 December 2011
Western Region Climate Center: Period of record monthly climate summary, 1950–2010, Station Prosser 4 NE. 2012. . Accessed 5 October 2012 http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?wa6768 . Accessed 5 October 2012
White PS, Jentsch A: The search for generality in studies of disturbance and ecosystem dynamics. Progress in botany, vol. 62. Berlin: Springer; 2001.
Yeager CM, Kornosky JL, Housman DC, Grote EE, Belnap J, Kuske CR: Diazotrophic community structure and function in two successional stages of biological soil crusts from the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan Desert. Appl Environ Microbio 2004, 70: 973–983. 10.1128/AEM.70.2.973-983.2004
Young JA, Evans RA: Dispersal and germination of big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata ) seeds. Weed Sci 1989, 37: 201–206.
Zaady E, Karnieli A, Shachak M: Applying a field spectroscopy technique for assessing successional trends of biological soil crusts in a semi-arid environment. J Arid Environ 2007, 70: 463–477. 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2007.01.004