Abebe MH, Oba G, Angassa A, Weladji RB (2006) The role of area enclosures and fallow age in the restoration of plant diversity in northern Ethiopia. Afr J Ecol 44(4):507–514
Aerts R, Nyssen J, Haile M (2009) On the difference between “exclosures” and “enclosures” in ecology and the environment. J Arid Environ 73(8):762–763
Agrawal A, Chhatre A, Hardin R (2008) Changing governance of the world’s forests. Science 320(5882):1460–1462. doi:10.1126/science.1155369
Alemu B (2012) Carbon stock potentials of woodlands and land use and land cover changes in north western lowlands of Ethiopia
Anderson J (2000) Four considerations for decentralized forest management: subsidiarity, empowerment, pluralism and social capital, Decentralization and devolution of forest management in Asia and the Pacific., pp 17–27
Aynekulu E (2011) Forest diversity in fragmented landscapes of northern Ethiopia and implications for conservation. A PhD thesis. Rheinschen Friedrich-Wilhems Universitat, Bonn
Ba L (2006) The regeneration of Tomboroconto forest, Senegal', Can Carbon Income Combat Forest Degradation
Bekele Y, Tadesse N, Konka B (2012) Preliminary study on the impact of water quality and irrigation practices on soil salinity and crop production, Gergera Watershed, Atsbi-Wonberta, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Momona Ethiop J Sci 4(1):29–46
Berhane H (2008) Assessment of the water resources potential and quality in the Gergera Watershed Atsbi-Womberta Woreda, eastern Zone, Tigray, Ethiopia
Beyene AD, Bluffstone R, Mekonnen A (2013) Community controlled forests, carbon sequestration and REDD+: some evidence from Ethiopia
Bishaw B (2001) Deforestation and land degredation in the Ethiopian highlands: a strategy for physical recovery. Northeast Afr Stud 8(1):7–25
Bojö J, Cassells D (1995) Land degradation and rehabilitation in Ethiopia: a reassessment. World bank. Africa region. Technical department. Environmentally sustainable development division.
Bowler D, Buyung-Ali L, Healey JR, Jones JP, Knight T, Pullin AS (2010) The evidence base for community forest management as a mechanism for supplying global environmental benefits and improving local welfare. CEE Review. Bangor University, Bangor, pp. 08–011.
Bray DB, Merino-Pérez L, Barry D (2009) The community forests of Mexico: managing for sustainable landscapes. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Brovkin V, Sitch S, Von Bloh W, Claussen M, Bauer E, Cramer W (2004) Role of land cover changes for atmospheric CO2 increase and climate change during the last 150 years. Glob Chang Biol 10(8):1253–1266. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00812.x
Brown S (1997) Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests: a primer (Vol. 134). Food & Agriculture Org, Rome.
Brown S (2002) Measuring carbon in forests: current status and future challenges. Environ Pollut 116(3):363–372, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00212-3
Cairns MA, Brown S, Helmer EH, Baumgardner GA (1997) Root biomass allocation in the world’s upland forests. Oecologia 111(1):1–11
Canadell JG, Raupach MR (2008) Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science 320(5882):1456–1457
Chaturvedi RK, Raghubanshi AS, Singh JS (2011) Carbon density and accumulation in woody species of tropical dry forest in India. For Ecol Manag 262(8):1576–1588, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.07.006
Chave J, Réjou-Méchain M, Búrquez A, Chidumayo E, Colgan MS, Delitti WBC, Duque A, Eid T, Fearnside PM, Goodman RC, Henry M, Martínez-Yrízar A, Mugasha WA, Muller-Landau HC, Mencuccini M, Nelson BW, Ngomanda A, Nogueira EM, Ortiz-Malavassi E, Pélissier R, Ploton P, Ryan CM, Saldarriaga JG, Vieilledent G (2014) Improved allometric models to estimate the aboveground biomass of tropical trees. Glob Chang Biol 20(10):3177–3190. doi:10.1111/gcb.12629
Chhatre A, Agrawal A (2009) Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(42):17667–17670. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905308106
Condit R (2008) Methods for estimating aboveground biomass of forest and replacement vegetation in the tropics. Center for Tropical Forest Science and ForestGeo Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Washington.
Darbyshire I, Lamb H, Umer M (2003) Forest clearance and regrowth in northern Ethiopia during the last 3000 years. The Holocene 13(4):537–546. doi:10.1191/0959683603hl644rp
Defries RS, Bounoua L, Collatz GJ (2002) Human modification of the landscape and surface climate in the next fifty years. Glob Chang Biol 8(5):438–458
Dewi S, Khasanah N, Rahayu S, Ekadinata A, Van Noordwijk M (2009) Carbon footprint of Indonesian palm oil production: a pilot study. Bogor, Indonesia. World Agroforestry Centre-ICRAF, SEA Regional Office, 8.
Eshete G, Ståhl G (1998) Functions for multi-phase assessment of biomass in acacia woodlands of the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. For Ecol Manag 105(1):79–90
Fahey TJ, Woodbury PB, Battles JJ, Goodale CL, Hamburg SP, Ollinger SV, Woodall CW (2009) Forest carbon storage: ecology, management, and policy. Front Ecol Environ 8(5):245–252
Fayolle A, Doucet J-L, Gillet J-F, Bourland N, Lejeune P (2013) Tree allometry in Central Africa: Testing the validity of pantropical multi-species allometric equations for estimating biomass and carbon stocks. For Ecol Manag 305:29–37, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.05.036
Fitsum H, Pender J, Nega G (1999) Land degradation in the highlands of Tigray, and strategies for sustainable land management. Socioeconomic and policy research working paper No. 25. International Livestock Research Institute. In MA Jabbar (Ed.). International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa.
Gebremedhin B, Pender J, Tesfay G (2003) Community natural resource management: the case of woodlots in northern Ethiopia. Environ Dev Econ 8(01):129–148
Gessesse TA (2016) Above-and belowground carbon stocks in semi-arid land-use systems under integrated watershed management in Gergera watershed. Universitäts-und Landesbibliothek Bonn, Ethiopia
Giday K, Eshete G, Barklund P, Aertsen W, Muys B (2013) Wood biomass functions for Acacia abyssinica trees and shrubs and implications for provision of ecosystem services in a community managed exclosure in Tigray, Ethiopia. J Arid Environ 94:80–86
Goward SN, Masek JG, Cohen W, Moisen G, Collatz GJ, Healey S, Houghton R, Huang C, Kennedy R, Law B (2008) Forest disturbance and North American carbon flux. Eos, Trans Am Geophysical Union 89(11):105–106
Hairiah K, Dewi S, Agus F, Velarde SJ, Ekadinata A, Rahayu S, van Noordwijk M (2011) Measuring carbon stocks across land use systems: a manual, World Agroforestry Centre–ICRAF, South East Asia Regional Office, Bogor, Indonesia
Hasen-Yusuf M, Treydte A, Abule E, Sauerborn J (2013) Predicting aboveground biomass of woody encroacher species in semi-arid rangelands, Ethiopia. J Arid Environ 96:64–72
Henry M, Picard N, Trotta C, Manlay R, Valentini R, Bernoux M, Saint André L (2011) Estimating tree biomass of sub-Saharan African forests: a review of available allometric equations. Silva Fennica 45(3B):477–569
Hoben A (1995) Paradigms and politics: the cultural construction of environmental policy in Ethiopia. World Dev 23(6):1007–1021
Houghton R (2007) Balancing the global carbon budget. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 35:313–347
Kangas A, Maltamo M (2006) Forest inventory: methodology and applications (Vol. 10). Springer Science & Business Media, Dordrecht.
Ketterings QM, Coe R, van Noordwijk M, Palm CA (2001) Reducing uncertainty in the use of allometric biomass equations for predicting above-ground tree biomass in mixed secondary forests. For Ecol Manag 146(1):199–209
Kurz WA, Dymond C, Stinson G, Rampley G, Neilson E, Carroll A, Ebata T, Safranyik L (2008) Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change. Nature 452(7190):987–990
Lewis SL, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Sonké B, Affum-Baffoe K, Baker TR, Ojo LO, Phillips OL, Reitsma JM, White L, Comiskey JA (2009) Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests. Nature 457(7232):1003–1006
Malhi Y, Baker TR, Phillips OL, Almeida S, Alvarez E, Arroyo L, Chave J, Czimczik CI, Fiore AD, Higuchi N (2004) The above‐ground coarse wood productivity of 104 Neotropical forest plots. Glob Chang Biol 10(5):563–591
Malimbwi R, Solberg B, Luoga E (1994) Estimation of biomass and volume in miombo woodland at Kitulangalo Forest Reserve, Tanzania. J Trop For Sci 7(2):230–242
Mate R, Johansson T, Sitoe A (2014) Biomass equations for tropical forest tree species in Mozambique. Forests 5(3):535
Mekuria W (2013) Changes in regulating ecosystem services following establishing exclosures on communal grazing lands in Ethiopia: a synthesis. J Ecosystems. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/860736
Mekuria W, Yami M (2013) Changes in woody species composition following establishing exclosures on grazing lands in the lowlands of Northern Ethiopia. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 7(1):30–40
Mekuria W, Veldkamp E, Haile M (2009) Carbon stock changes with relation to land use conversion in the lowlands of Tigray, Ethiopia, Paper presented at the Proceedings of Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development; Proceedings of the 36th Meeting of the Italian Society of Agronomy
Mengistu T, Teketay D, Hulten H, Yemshaw Y (2005) The role of enclosures in the recovery of woody vegetation in degraded dryland hillsides of central and northern Ethiopia. J Arid Environ 60(2):259–281
Mwendera EJ, Saleem MAM, Woldu Z (1997) Vegetation response to cattle grazing in the Ethiopian highlands. Agric Ecosyst Environ 64(1):43–51, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(96)01128-0
Ngomanda A, Engone Obiang NL, Lebamba J, Moundounga Mavouroulou Q, Gomat H, Mankou GS, Loumeto J, Midoko Iponga D, Kossi Ditsouga F, Zinga Koumba R, Botsika Bobé KH, Mikala Okouyi C, Nyangadouma R, Lépengué N, Mbatchi B, Picard N (2014) Site-specific versus pantropical allometric equations: which option to estimate the biomass of a moist central African forest? For Ecol Manag 312:1–9, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.10.029
Nyssen J, Poesen J, Moeyersons J, Deckers J, Haile M, Lang A (2004) Human impact on the environment in the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands—a state of the art. Earth Sci Rev 64(3):273–320
Nyssen J, Haile M, Naudts J, Munro N, Poesen J, Moeyersons J, Frankl A, Deckers J, Pankhurst R (2009) Desertification? Northern Ethiopia re-photographed after 140 years. Sci Total Environ 407(8):2749–2755
Pagdee A, Y-s K, Daugherty PJ (2006) What makes community forest management successful: a meta-study from community forests throughout the world. Soc Nat Resour 19(1):33–52
Pearson T, Walker S, Brown S (2005) Sourcebook for land use, land-use change and forestry projects. Winrock International and the Bio-carbon fund of the World Bank, Arlington
Ravindranath N, Ostwald M (2008) Methods for estimating above-ground biomass, Carbon Inventory Methods Handbook for Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Carbon Mitigation and Roundwood Production Projects., pp 113–147
Roy J, Mooney HA, Saugier B (2001) Terrestrial global productivity. Academic Press, San Diego.
Skutsch MM, Ba L (2010) Crediting carbon in dry forests: the potential for community forest management in West Africa. Forest Policy Econ 12(4):264–270
Skutsch M, Solis S (2011) How much carbon does community forest management save., Community Forest Monitoring for the Carbon Market
Solichin ML, Steinmann K (2011) Tier 3 biomass assessment for baseline emission in Merang Peat Swamp Forest, Paper presented at the International Conference on Tropical Wetlands of Indonesia, Bali
Sunderlin WD, Hatcher J, Liddle M (2008) From exclusion to ownership? Challenges and opportunities in advancing forest tenure reform. Rights and Resources Initiative, Washington.
Supriya Devi L, Yadava PS (2009) Aboveground biomass and net primary production of semi-evergreen tropical forest of Manipur, north-eastern India. J For Res 20(2):151–155. doi:10.1007/s11676-009-0026-y
Taddese G, Saleem MM, Abyie A, Wagnew A (2002) Impact of grazing on plant species richness, plant biomass, plant attribute, and soil physical and hydrological properties of vertisol in East African highlands. Environ Manag 29(2):279–289
Tesfaye Y (2011) Participatory forest management for sustainable livelihoods in the Bale Mountains, Southern Ethiopia, vol 2011
Tietema T (1993) Biomass determination of fuelwood trees and bushes of Botswana, Southern Africa. For Ecol Manag 60(3):257–269
Ubuy MH, Gebrehiwot K, Raj AJ (2014) Biomass estimation of exclosure in the Debrekidan Watershed, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia. Int J Agric Forestry 4(2):88–93. doi:10.5923/j.ijaf.20140402.07
Vashum KT, Jayakumar S (2012) Methods to estimate above-ground biomass and carbon stock in natural forests-a review. J Ecosyst Ecogr 2(4):1–7, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7625.1000116
Wagner RG, Little KM, Richardson B, McNabb K (2006) The role of vegetation management for enhancing productivity of the world's forests. Forestry: An Int J Forest Res 79(1):57–79. doi:10.1093/forestry/cpi057
Watson C, Mourato S, Milner-Gulland EJ (2013) Uncertain Emission Reductions from Forest Conservation: REDD in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. Ecol Soc. 18(3). doi: 10.5751/ES-05670-180306
Yayneshet T, Eik LO, Moe SR (2009) The effects of exclosures in restoring degraded semi-arid vegetation in communal grazing lands in northern Ethiopia. J Arid Environ 73(4–5):542–549, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2008.12.002
Yigardu M (2001) Above Ground Biomass of the Dominant Tree Species on Farmlands in Sirinka Catchment, North Wolo, Ethiopia. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
Yitebitu M, Zewdu E, Sisay N (2010) A review on Ethiopian Forest Resources: current status and future management options in view of access to carbon finances, Prepared for the Ethiopian climate research and networking and the United Nations development programme (UNDP). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Zahabu E (2006a) Case Study Handei village forest reserve, Tanzania, Can Carbon Income Combat Forest Degradation? Community Forest Management for Climate Mitigation and Poverty Alleviation., p 15
Zahabu E (2006b) Kitulangalo forest area, Tanzania, Community Forest Management as a Carbon Mitigation Option., p 0
Zianis D, Seura SM (2005) Biomass and stem volume equations for tree species in Europe (Vol. 4). Finnish Society of Forest Science, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki.