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Table 2 The differences between agriculture farming system in Cameron Highlands (Tiraieyari et al. 2014; Radam et al. 2015)

From: Land use change in highland area and its impact on river water quality: a review of case studies in Malaysia

GAP farming system Characteristics Conventional farming system
Large (> 10 ha) Area of farm Small (< 5 ha)
Big-scale production for domestic and international market
 Better marker access
 Priority as supplier in the local hypermarkets
Production scale Small-scale only for domestic market
 Maintenance cost (e.g., plastic rain shelter
 New technologies, infrastructure and facilities
 Fertilizers cost
Production cost Low
Relatively high (only due to large farm area) Labor cost High
Low (use natural water supply from upper catchment) Irrigation cost Low (use natural water supply from upper catchment)
High Yield per plant (kg) Low
High (due to its better appearance, size and quality)
 E.g., tomato (USD 2.00)
Market price Low
 E.g., tomato (USD 1.00)
Longer (cultivates are grown in a protected environment) Crop production cycle Shorter (cultivates directly exposed to external factor such as wind, pest, rain, etc.)
 Plastic rain shelter
Practices  Open-field farming