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Table 2 The differences between agriculture farming system in Cameron Highlands (Tiraieyari et al. 2014; Radam et al. 2015)

From: Land use change in highland area and its impact on river water quality: a review of case studies in Malaysia

GAP farming system


Conventional farming system

Large (> 10 ha)

Area of farm

Small (< 5 ha)

Big-scale production for domestic and international market

 Better marker access

 Priority as supplier in the local hypermarkets

Production scale

Small-scale only for domestic market


 Maintenance cost (e.g., plastic rain shelter

 New technologies, infrastructure and facilities

 Fertilizers cost

Production cost


Relatively high (only due to large farm area)

Labor cost


Low (use natural water supply from upper catchment)

Irrigation cost

Low (use natural water supply from upper catchment)


Yield per plant (kg)


High (due to its better appearance, size and quality)

 E.g., tomato (USD 2.00)

Market price


 E.g., tomato (USD 1.00)

Longer (cultivates are grown in a protected environment)

Crop production cycle

Shorter (cultivates directly exposed to external factor such as wind, pest, rain, etc.)

 Plastic rain shelter




 Open-field farming