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Table 1 Effects of source limitation due to historical disturbance and human competing with pinecones, thinning treatments and season on granivores activities and Korean pine seed regeneration processes

From: Cascading effect of source limitation on the granivore-mediated seed dispersal of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) in secondary forest ecosystems

Fixed effect Source limitation Season Thinning treatments Season
F df P F df P F df P F df P
Animal occurrence 6.36 1 0.01 5.29 3 0.15 11.71 2 0.01 13.64 3 0.02
Sciurus vulgaris 5.86 1 0.02 5.80 3 0.12 8.30 2 0.02 5.06 3 0.17
Tamias sibiricus 0.08 1 0.78 22.67 3 0.00 5.80 2 0.05 16.47 3 0.01
Nucifraga caryocatactes 9.48 1 0.00 47.73 3 0.00 2.29 2 0.32 12.77 3 0.00
Apodemus peninsulae 1.37 1 0.24 6.42 3 0.09 3.30 2 0.16 16.20 3 0.00
Seed regeneration processes             
 Pre-dispersal seed predation 9.68 1 0.00 20.68 3 0.00 3.88 2 0.14 5.13 3 0.16
 Post-dispersal seed predation 1.21 1 0.27 41.41 3 0.00 10.006 2 0.01 128.48 3 0.00
 Scatter-hoarding seed escaped predation 23.64 1 0.00 7.09 3 0.07 1.87 2 0.39 64.51 3 0.00
 Seedling recruitment 6.30 1 0.01     116.32 2 0.00    
 Seedling survival 0.01 1 0.97     4.24 2 0.12    
 Seedling mortality 0.01 1 0.98     12.80 2 0.00    
  1. Significant effects (P < 0.05) are bolded